Causes, Symptoms and Precautions of Melasma:
Firstly, lets understand what is Melasma. It is commonly known as a dark patch caused by skin discoloration shown in women during their pregnancy. While it is also possible in the stronger species however it is very rare. It is also perceived that this is also caused due to exterior sun exposure, exterior hormonal imbalance controls like birth control tablets and internal hormonal changes that are shown during pregnancy period.
Signs And Symptoms of Melasma: Melasma is generally a dark, unbalanced and well defined hyper-pigmented macules to spots are normally originated on the upper part of cheeks, in both of lips, nose, forehead and upper lips. Rather than cosmetic discoloration, there are no other symptoms of Melasma. Melasma is also caused after Pre- Menopause in ladies. It is cause due to the certain change in hormones.
Causes of Melasma: Although the main causes of Melasma remains unidentified, specialist consider that dark spots in Melasma could be triggered due to various factors like to women during their pregnancy, or during taking a course of birth control tablets or by hormone replacement rehabilitation. Researches also show that it is caused due to hereditary, race, antiseizure treatments and other treatments that creates more prone to skin-coloring after getting into contact with ultraviolet light. Intense and more frequent contact with sunlight may also cause melisma. Specifically during summers, Melasma develops more frequently, because of the intensity of the rays directly contacting your skin as compared to winters where the patients of Melasma have lesser complaints.
Once Melasma occurs during time of pregnancy then it is known as Chlosma or the pregnancy mask. Expecting women generate ample amount of estrogen, melanocyte-stimulating hormone and progestin during the second and third trimesters of conceiving. Melanocytes cells are present in the skin that enhances pigmentation. Although, specialist believed that during pregnancy, Melasma is caused due to presence of increased level of progesterone and not due to estrogen and MSH. Researches have proven that in postmenopausal women accept progesterone hormone and replacement rehabilitation increases the chances of growing Melasma in the skin. If in postmenopausal stage, body of a women receiving only estrogen creates less chances of Melasma than the normal days.
Various skin treatments that cause itching in skin at the various parts of the body, especially facial skin may also cause an increase in melanin production in the body which are the initial signs of Melasma.
Individuals who have genetic predisposition or have a history of Melasma from their parental jeans, they have higher chances of developing Melasma during the later stage of lives. The vital prevention approach for such individuals is avoiding direct contact of sunlight on their skin, or if unavoidable then apply extra sunblock to avoid stimulating pigmentation in skin. People inheriting such jeans from their parents shold consult with their respective doctors or skin specialists before commencing a course of birth control tablets or try to avoid them and HRT if possible.
On the Body Where is Melasma Found: We know that Melasma is identified by discoloration of skin or hyper-pigmentation generally found on the facial skin. There are commonly three facial patterns that have been recognized as Melasma and they are in the center of the face, Cheekbones and in Jawbone.
The most predominant form of Melasma is Centrofacial and it includes your forehead, your cheeks, your chin your nose and also your upper lips. The Cheekbones pattern is found in the upper checks. And the Jawbone pattern is found in the jaw.
How Melasma is identified? Melasma is identified by analysing the typical look of brown spots on the facial skin. Dermatologist, physicians who are specialized in skin disorder frequently identify Melasma by thoroughly examine the skin. A black or wood light of 340-400nm can greatly support in diagnosing Melasma, while for identifying it is not necessary. In so many cases Melasma identification is mixed with other skin diseases, which means that discoloration is due to coloring in the dermis and epidermis. Occasionally, a skin biopsy might be essential to help exclude other reasons of this native skin hyper-pigmentation.
Treatment for Melasma: Normally the body cures the discoloration of skin itself, naturally after few months of giving birth or stoping the course of birth control pills or Hormone replacement therapy.
Treatment of Melasma frequently becomes ineffective as it reoccurs due to continuous contact to the direct sunlight. Dermatologist provide their examination assessment which will helps in guidance of treatments for Melasma patients. In this Treatment dermatologist use Wood lamps that helps to determine the depth of Melasma Pigment. Following are simple techniques which helps in treatments of discolored spots in the skin:
- Typical de-pigmenting agents like hydroquinone (HQ) either available over the counter for 2% intensity or a prescribed medicament of four percent gives strength. HQ is a chemical that constrains tyrosine an intricate the enzymes in the making of melanin.
- An acid Tretinon that upsurges skin cell (keratinocyte) throughput. This medication cannot be used during the period of pregnancy.
- Azelaic acid (twenty percent), supposedly helps in reduceing the action of melanocytes.
- VerbalTranexamic acid offer fast and continuous decrease in Melasma by declining melanogenesis in epidermal melanocytes.
- Chemical peelings.
- Microdermabrasion to dermabrasion (bright to bottomless).
- Galvanic or solography facials with a mixture of a tropical crème or gel. Whichever is easily available in an aesthetician workplace or as a home-based massage unit.
- You can used Laser but not IPL, IPL can create the melisma darker.
While doing all these treatments, avoid direct contact of sunlight on the affected areas. This is due to the fact that, these treatments are useless and ineffective as soon as sunlight comes in contact with the skin. Hence, before going out always try to use wide range sunscreen with bodily blockers like titanium dioxide and zinc dioxide is preferred over only biochemical blockers. This is due to UV-A, UV-B and the observable lights are all accomplished of exciting pigment creation. Patients must always avoid precipitants comprising hormonal causes. Cosmetic camouflage can also be used to lighten Melasma.
Precautions of Melasma::
- Apply Hydroquinone in the form cream or as an alcohol founded medicament, hydroquinone is a chemical which declines the rate of making of Melasma in the skin. Hence, helps to lighten the spots on the skin.
- Try to eat more fruits and vegetables with rich Vitamin C contents because that helps in skin brightening and also in curing Melasma.
- Always apply sunscreen while going out in bright sunlight. Ensure to apply 15 to 20 minutes before you leave the shade. It helps you in curing Melasma and controlling further damage.
- Avoid sunbath, though sounds easy, but avoid visiting places with harsh sun or where the direct sunlight has higher content of ultra violet rays, this is because direct contact with sunlight increase in quantity of Melasma on the skin and enhances pigmentation and Melanin content which is one of the major factors of Melasma.